←Chapter 2: Consciousness

Evolution


“The increase of order inside an organism is more than paid for by an increase in disorder outside this organism. By this mechanism, the second law is obeyed, and life maintains a highly ordered state, which it sustains by causing a net increase in disorder in the Universe.”
– Erwin Schrödinger


INTRODUCTION
After 13.8 billion years of purported entropy increase we are witnessing a universe putting on violent and fierce spectacles with incessant energy. The maxim of Rudolph Clausius that „the entropy of the universe tends to a maximum” rings hollow. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, the second law of thermodynamics is only true within gravitational environments. The accelerating expansion of the universe is a constant energy generator, which increases the entropy of the universe as a whole, but decreases the entropy of its constituents. In gravity-free space and within gravitational regions, opposite entropic changes take place. Evolution is an ever-increasing complexity that works through the self-organization of matter into stars, planets, and living creatures such as us.

Charles Darwin laid down the basic idea of evolution with great insight, but in light of the enormous progress since then in genetics and molecular biology, the basic premise that random processes, stochastic mutations aided by selection pressure, and survival of the fittest could have given rise to sensory, emotional, and intellectual complexity is now suspect (Merlin, 2010, Hedges et al., 2015). The emergence of DNA repair mechanisms has reduced the evolutionary importance of arbitrary mutations. In addition, arbitrary mutations more likely lead to a loss of abilities than to the development of innovations. For example, domesticated animals were vigorously selected for specific qualities. Although their sizes and colors show amazing variety, a dog is still a dog and remains only a dog.

The Darwinian idea of evolution can produce amazing variety in sizes, colors and shapes but, to create the complexity of fins, hearts, and the human mind, it becomes hard pressed for answers. The Darwinian theory of evolution is in a need of a serious update (Saphiro, 2011). From elementary particles to emotional minds, ecosystems, and societies, we often find behavior that hints at a discrete energy structure (Wolfram 2002). When discrete structures interact, energy imbalances can be stabilized and enhanced, leading to structural differences, i.e., complexity. Modification of the field curvature generates congruent energetic changes within the Calabi–Yau torus. The system’s behavior is not arbitrary; interaction produces a memory, which in turn becomes the source of further action, as shown by the Bayesian game theory (Harsanyi, 1967; 1968). The increasing entropy produces conditions favorable for the emergence of life (Wissner-Gross & Freer, 2013). Every unsuccessful attempt at life helped to channel evolution and made the environment more favorable to life. Biological evolution is not arbitrary; it inevitably culminates toward the emergence of the mind.


THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE
We have seen that the two Calabi–Yau-space building blocks of the universe (matter and emotional fermions) differ by several orders of magnitude, and form vastly different energy levels. The universe’s accelerating expansion is a continuous creator of space. As we saw in Chapter 1, cosmic voids have strict energy structures, so expansion generates energy. However, within the near-Euclidean gravitational regions of the universe, energy conservation is strictly observed. During interaction, MiDT in one emotional mind (or species) is balanced by MaDT in the other and the concentration of MiDT and MaDT remains in equilibrium in the universe, leading to charge neutrality (although local imbalances can form). Landauer’s principle states the convertibility of energy and information, which also means the equality of energy and information. This can also be recognized as the mechanism of „static” time proven by Moreva and colleagues, and means that the universe forms an energy-neutral unit. It is reasonable to suggest that the SF and TF represent extremely low-frequency standing waves within a Calabi–Yau torus, which is called the universe. Thus, the universe is stretched between the white holes and the black holes, and the expansion of the white holes is kept in check by the enormous field strength of the black holes. Therefore, black holes form the edge of space. The physical laws are limited to and characteristic of the universe, which cannot be divided and from which nothing can escape. Black holes, being the outer boundary of cosmos, seem to be an idea whose time has come. Almheiri and colleagues (2015) examined black hole entanglement and found that their horizons must form an impenetrable firewall. This leads to the inevitable conclusion that black holes are the forbidding boundary of the universe.

The three layers of the universe’s elementary building blocks, the material fermions, the mind, and the universe itself, are highly interconnected in spite of their enormously different sizes. However, matter is completely dependent on space for its operation; the mind can govern its bodily real estate, whereas the universe is self-contained and self-regulating. Thus, the three elementary particles represent increasing degrees of freedom and manifest increasing complexity. The identical structure of material fermions and the mind indicates their fundamental connection: matter originates at a temporal point; at zero time, whereas the mind originates at a spatial point; at zero volume. Material fermions form spatial complexity, whereas temporal fermions give rise to mysterious and inexplicable mental complexity. Matter fermions use up space to produce temporal evolution, culminating in the emergence of the mind. Mental fermions consume time to form mental expansion, the source of spatial (mental) volume.

Thus, the orthogonal orientation of elementary particles (matter and mind) form a predator-prey relationship and embrace as yin and yang, determining each other’s future and past. The structure of the Calabi–Yau torus, reformulating from the largest to the smallest scales, leads to a fractal and cellular structure formulated by submanifolds in material and societal structures.

Summary
The accelerating expansion of the universe is a constant energy generator; however, the universe observes energy and charge neutrality. The energy structure of the Calabi–Yau torus reappears on three levels as the buil­ding blocks matter, the mind, and the universe itself. Its energy neutrality makes the universe an elementary fermion.


A NEW CONCEPT OF EVOLUTION
James Maxwell’s 1867 thought experiment involves a demon or a device that would select warmer particles and channel them unidirectionally in a divided container. The warmer channel would increase the temperature difference between the chambers and violate the second law of thermodynamics. Maxwell’s demon, however, expresses the power of self-organization, which is the capacity and most essential feature of living organisms to counter and even make use of the environment’s increasing entropy.

Evolution often moves forward in seemingly chaotic processes that nevertheless have an unescapable, directional flow. Evolution can be divided into physical, chemical, biological, and societal phases, where the names of the phases refer to their defining parameters. The sequential and increasingly complex steps are well separable and are characterized by specific temperature, pressure, entropic, and oxidative qualities. Physical evolution began at the high temperature of the Big Bang. Interactions produced the galaxies and the elements of the periodic table. Chemical evolution proceeds on dust and ice surfaces of low-temperature gravity-free space, where fast moving atoms freed after annihilation of stars readily assemble into complex molecules with biological potential. Life’s nurseries are rocky and temperate planets with mild gravity.

The narrow temperature and pressure range of Euclidean environments is ideal for biological evolution.

Darwin’s idea was radical not only in his time; evolution continues to be controversial, particularly in relation to the second law of thermodynamics. Evolution’s apparent drive for order is hard to reconcile with the second law. However, organization can be viewed as a tool that abets the entropy production of the inanimate environment. This was Schrödinger’s insight. The possible deep connection between entropy maximization and organization, or even intelligence, has been hinted at in fields as diverse as computer science and cosmology. Maxi­mum entropy production seems to describe nonequilibrium processes in physics and biology (Matyusev 2010; Wissner-Gross & Freer, 2013). The entropy production of gravitational environments is recognized by the second law of thermodynamics. I propose to call the entropy-maximizing drive of the gravitational environment entropic force, which forms an entropic pressure vis à vis membranous organisms. Entropic pressure is proportional to the entropic changes of the environment and inversely proportional to the relative concentration of membranous organisms. Entropic pressure becomes the source of evolutionary change which, assisted by elementary forces, slowly accumulates useful energy (order) inside the membrane and gives rise to self-organization—the emergence of life and evolution. The entropic pressure of the environment is maximized in dynamic systems where the relative concentration of membranous organisms is small. Typically, this can be found in transition states, boundary conditions, or in species with small or fragmented population size (Nevo&Beiles, 2011). On the surface of Earth, energy infusion (such as the energy of the sun) increases chemical turnover. Gravity (i.e., the second law of thermodynamics) and the continuous, steady energy input became the driving forces of biological evolution. The physical laws govern not only the nonliving world but also the biological systems. Recognizing evolution as a fundamental science governed by physical laws can revolutionize our ability to manipulate and manage biological systems.